Work Package 1.4 - Integrated and Sustainable management of natural assets
Managing ecosystems to avoid exceeding national, and ultimately planetary, boundaries will inevitably involve trade-offs and synergies between different ecosystem services. Maximising one benefit (e.g. provision of food) may be traded-off against another (e.g. carbon storage), resulting in some difficult decisions, due to competing demands and pressures. These trade-offs will only be exacerbated by drivers of change.
Fulfilling societal demand for multiple benefits from land requires a change from the current focus on single assets. To achieve food, environment, energy and water security, integrated, cross-scale and spatially explicit policy options need to be developed that consider and connect multiple objectives and interests.
Aim of Research
Identifying and understanding multiple benefits and trade-offs – this work aims to have developed approaches that will support integrated decision-making to protect multiple natural assets and maximise benefits in socially acceptable ways. We will have identified and quantified impacts on, and trade-offs among, multiple ecosystem services (ESS) generated by land use and land management change across spatial scales.
This will entail:
- The identification of gaps in the current delivery of multiple benefits from the land -contact Alessandro Gimona
- The identification of opportunities to increase multiple benefits through policy and industry delivery mechanisms -contact Kirsty Blackstock
- The appraisal of policy options to deliver multiple benefits from the land -contact Alessandro Gimona
Land use and management decision are complicated by the need for multiple actors trying to achieve multiple objectives. RD1.4.2 has made further progress this year in understanding the trade-offs that result, their management, and the processes that underpin them. An initial evaluation of catchment partnerships has indicated that statutory policy objectives and associated funding are important in shaping the actions of these voluntary, private sector initiatives. The findings will be used to inform the development of Rural Land Use Partnerships and wider interests in public-private partnerships to deliver agricultural, climate and environmental goals as part of a Green Recovery. In the context of woodland expansion, operational approaches for sustainable forest management for multiple benefits have been developed, and the impact of woodland and moorland habitat connectivity modelled under alternative socio-economic scenarios. A zonation to prioritise woodland expansion based on multiple benefits has been devised, and models of native tree distributions under climate change completed. These will be used to develop future woodland expansion scenarios, while Virtual Reality tools have been developed to allow the local effect of woodland expansion to be visualised. In addition, RD1.4.2 has completed a life-cycle assessment of protein production, demonstrating that arable land requirements for animal-based protein production and high-quality plant-based protein production are similar in Scotland. Finally, we worked with farmers, allotment holders and gardeners to explore perceptions of nature and environmental management and to explore the interplay between an individual’s efforts to manage biodiversity and wider management initiatives.
- Aligning Policy Instruments: Work from WP1.4 on ‘Three ways to improve ecosystem monitoring and evaluation’ was selected as a highlight of the year by the OPPLA newsletter and informed ALTER-Net's recommendations for the post-2020 EU biodiversity strategy submitted in Jan 2020, which identified the importance of monitoring and evaluation to inform policy but also to understand and promote the societal importance of biodiversity.
- Work on social innovation to deliver multiple benefits in forestry led by Maria Nijnik (e.g. reflected in a Chartered Forester paper, Jan. 2019) has led to a series of pan-European network activities and outputs under the EFI facility “from Science to Policy”. The main collaborative product was discussed in Bonn, Prague and Scotland (at the EFI conference, Hutton, Sept 2019), launched in Brussels (Dec 2019) and developed for an open access ‘From Science to Policy’ publication (audience: policy makers, decision-makers, politicians, wider stakeholders). IUFRO Unit 4.05.05 on Social Innovation and Entrepreneurs Unit 4.05.05 coordinated was established to reach worldwide.
- Net Zero with Nature: in March 2020 Alison Hester gave a presentation at the Net Zero with Nature conference hosted by the Cairngorm National Park presenting a holistic approach to woodland expansion pioneered by research lead by Alessandro Gimona , with Andrea Baggio and Marie Castellazzi, which emphasises the importance of considering a wide range of benefits and constraints when considering if, where and how woodlands should be expanded.
In the past year, modelling results have shown that agricultural by-products could reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the beef supply chain.
Research has also clarified opportunities for policy integration and found that the use of instruments such as payments for ecosystem services to increase sustainability of land use might be difficult without better communication to users. A purpose-designed, structured online survey, targeted at individuals working in nature conservation, found that the concept of payment for ecosystem services has many different interpretations among practitioners, with potentially conflicting uses of the concept.
The governance of tree line areas has also been the focus of investigation. Research on several areas across Europe, including Scotland, has looked at how governance could improve participation, openness, accountability, effectiveness and coherence. The general conclusions were that forest related decision-making in treeline areas requires social innovation and a high level of stakeholder competence and capacity-building; and that an improved knowledge of experts attitudes, together with an emphasis on increased participation in decision-making, could help policy and practice communities in triggering innovative changes locally.
In our analysis concerning native woodland expansion, following suggestions from Scottish Forestry (was forestry commission) and SEPA, we have also refined the criteria for expansion (ecosystem services) and added flood alleviation and connectivity. The results will be used to produce an improved spatial analysis suggesting where to expand native woodlands in Scotland. This analysis, together with work on connectivity, is informing decisions on woodland expansion in the Cairngorms National Park (CNP). Scottish Forestry have expressed interest in using this approach and new forthcoming results for other areas to inform the process they use to score grant applications for forest expansion. RSPB have also expressed interest. An illustration of the approach used so far can be seen here.
Climate-related work, necessary to project distribution changes of several species and the need to inform woodland expansion, has progressed with new statistical methods for downscaling of coarse or medium resolution model output.
- Aligning existing and new delivery mechanisms: A comparative analysis of institutions and processes to deliver soil, water and biodiversity policy goals has reported findings that help to identify opportunities for improving the integration of policy instruments to support delivery of multiple benefits in peatland, forestry and agricultural settings. SEFARI scientists are sharing and disseminating these findings widely through reports, stakeholder meetings, peer-reviewed publication and a several academic meetings including as a session organisers at the RGS-IBG Annual International Conference.
- Improving the environmental performance of supply chains: a model of the beef supply chain has been developed that identifies geographical, sectoral and supply chain hotspots in GHG emissions. Analysis of the model has been used to study impact of alternative uses for distillery by-products on GHG emissions .
- Key issues for habitat connectivity: SEFARI scientists have contributed to the design of actions for enhancing habitat connectivity and resilience reported in a recent paper in Journal of Applied Ecology. This has drawn on research (including SRP research) that highlights habitat connectivity as a key issue affecting resilience of different species and habitats.
- Climate change modelling: A new modelling approach has been published that produces high resolution (100m) spatial climate data by downscaling existing 1km resolution WorldClim data. This approach will have applications in the estimation of soil erosion, species range shift, carbon stocks and the provision of ecosystem services in response to climate change.
Research on social innovation has tackled the potential to alleviate depopulation in rural areas of Scotland, while work on monitoring and evaluation for ecosystem management has highlighted the need for more focus on the outcome of intervention.
Ecosystem services models have been updated with improved data and algorithms. The spatial multicriteria analysis (MCA) approach developed thus far has been applied to woodland expansion, both at the national level and at a regional level (Cairngorms National Park) and to peatland restoration. The results need to be refined, through interactions with stakeholders such as Forestry Commission and SNH, by incorporating extra criteria and exploring the consequences of attributing different importance to them . This will lead to better understanding of trade-offs and synergies.
- Utilising natural assets to revive remote rural areas: An invited keynote talk entitled “Depopulation in rural areas and how social innovation can address current challenges” was given at the Dutch Royal Palace Symposium in June 2017. In addition, a thematic session on social innovation as a means of enhancing the sustainability of Scottish and other mountain communities was organised and chaired at the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) 125th Anniversary Congress. The work will appear in a special journal issue of Forest Policy and Economics.
- Monitoring and Evaluating Environmental Management: A report summarising the findings from desktop analysis of monitoring schemes for Water Framework Directive, Natura 2000 and Agri-environment measures across 9 EU case studies is available. The report illustrates that the monitoring schemes are not currently meeting all the theory-derived criteria required to support an Ecosystems Approach, but there are examples of good practice in terms of public access to information, a systemic approach and citizen involvement.
MCA is a form of (non monetary) valuation and prioritisation of different land functions, useful to improve decision making that ultimately aims at achieving the objectivs of the Land Use Strategy and of the land-related sustainable development goals. We have developed methods based on spatial multicriteria analysis to enable researchers and stakeholders to explore benefits and trade-offs between various options of land use change. Prototypes of interactive tools to facilitate such exploration have been constructed. An example of an application was a study informing the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the energy plan for Perth and Kinross. This approach will be applied to woodland expansion and peatland restoration in the next months. Further development of this approach will be carried out in consultation with CNP (for woodlands ) and SNH (for peatland restoration)
- Working across WP1.3 and WP1.4 and with stakeholders, a concept note has been developed on a national habitat connectivity process.
- We convened a habitat connectivity workshop involving eleven organisations to agree on a set of actions to support the development of a National Ecological Network.
Work on UK-level SSP1 and SSP5 narratives, applied to land use change, will assess impacts of the possible land use changes on diffuse pollution and habitat connectivity. Work on low emissions options (NEtNet-Zero) for land use changes, as suggested by the Committee on Climate Change will begin in the second half of 2020. Criteria for woodland expansion will be incorporated in the analysis of Net-Zero options. Visualisation of some scenarios for limited areas will also be developed and made available through web-based tools.
We will analyse data from selected four case studies in Scotland and England (Dee, Spey, Hampshire Avon and Poole Harbour) to consider how catchment partnerships combine public policy and private sector mechanisms to deliver multiple benefits (in conjunction with WP 1.2.4). A full report will be available in December 2020).
We will also focus further on the role of relational values in relation to biodiversity management and governance. Relationships with humans and the more-than-human is fundamental to our (well)being as it is through those that we experience and come to understand the intertwining between ourselves and others. In this work we focus on the interplay between specific relations to nature and more abstract concepts and values regarding the nature of humans and nature. This will help to understand better the different discourses people held around these relationships and tensions between conflicting goals and values.
- How can we better include the natural environment in decision-making? Summary of findings and actions by John Turnpenny (University of East Anglia), Duncan Russell (University of Exeter), Kerry Waylen (James Hutton Institute) and Kirsty Blackstock (James Hutton Institute) - workshop at VQ, Edinburgh Weds 4th May (organised by Mary Christie, SNH). The final briefing is available here(link is external).
- Hryniv, L., Nijnik, M. and Nijnik, A, (2016) Innovative approaches to formation of sustainable water management systems XV International science-practice communities conference on resources of natural waters, 26-27 May 2016, Lviv, Ukraine. Extended abstract published.
- Sarkki, S., A. Ficko, K. Grunewald, A. Kyriazopoulos, & M. Nijnik, (2017) How pragmatism in environmental science and policy can undermine sustainability transformations: the case of marginalized mountain areas under climate and land use change(link is external), Sustainability Science, 12(4): 549-561.
- Poggio, L. and Gimona, A. (2014) National scale 3D modelling of soil organic carbon stocks with uncertainty propagation — An example from Scotland(link is external). Inclusion in the 'Pedometrics 25th Anniversary Virtual Issue of Geoderma, 284-299.
- Poggio, L. & Gimona, A. (2017) Assimilation of optical and radar remote sensing data in 3D mapping of soil properties over large areas.(link is external) Science of the Total Environment.
- Comerford, D. (2017) Report on ‘Computable General Equilibrium models with Natural Capital’ is available here(link is external).
- Blackstock, K. (2017) Participation in the Context of Ecological Economics(link is external), Chapter 33, Routledge Handbook of Ecological Economics: Nature and Society. Edited by Clive L. Spash (522 pages).
- Hester, A. et al. (2017) Identifying and tackling trade-offs: a progress report from Scotland(link is external). Invited keynote presentation at AlterNet Conference, 3-5th May, Ghent Belgium.
- Blackstock, K., Novo, P., Waylen, K., Maxwell, J. and Juarez-Bourke, A. (2017) Coordinating policy instruments that influence soil, water, and biodiversity in Scotland: rationales, needs and challenges - workshop held 23rd May 2017, Edinburgh, Scotland. The workshop report can be found here(link is external).
- Fischer, A.; Blackstock, K.L. (2018) Communication, capacity building and public participation.(link is external), In: Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A. & Mader, A. (eds.). IPBES (2018): The IPBES Regional Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services for Europe and Central Asia. Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany, Chapter 6, Section 188.8.131.52., pp1041-1043.
- Fischer, A.; Blackstock, K.L. (2018) Environmental governance for biodiversity and nature's contributions to people: synergies and trade-offs: Chapter 6, Section 6.4.2. Options for governance and decision making across scales and sectors .(link is external), In: Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A. & Mader, A. (eds.). IPBES (2018): The IPBES Regional Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services for Europe and Central Asia. Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany, Chapter 6, Section 6.4.2., pp980- 988.
- Blackstock K.L. et al. (2017) Monitoring and Evaluation for Ecosystem Management (MEEM), Technical Report, James Hutton Institute, 96 pages. The report is available here(link is external).
- Mosdale, L., Nijnik, M., Barlagne, C., Burlando, C., Perlik, M., Price, M. (2017) Social innovation in mountain territories: insights from the conference “Mountain regions, territories of innovation”.(link is external)
- Nijnik, M., Depopulation in rural areas: future perspectives and how social innovation can address current challenges(link is external), Amsterdam Royal Palace Symposium, 15 June, 2017.
- Leinonen, I., MacLeod, M. and Bell, J. (2018) Effects of alternative uses of distillery by-products on the greenhouse gas emissions of Scottish malt whisky production: a system expansion approach(link is external) has been submitted to the special issue "Environmentally Sustainable Livestock Production" of the journal “Sustainability”.
- N. J. B. Isaac, P. N. M. Brotherton, J. M. Bullock, R. D. Gregory, K. Boehning‐Gaese, B. Connor, H. Q. P. Crick, R. P. Freckleton, J. A. Gill, R. S. Hails, M. Hartikainen, A. J. Hester, E. J. Millner‐Gulland, T. H. Oliver, R. G. Pearson, W. J. Sutherland, C. D. Thomas, J. M. J. Travis, L. A. Turnbull, K. Willis, G. Woodward & G. M. Mace (2018) Defining and delivering resilient ecological networks: nature conservation in England.(link is external) Journal of Applied Ecology.
- Spezia, L., Friel, N. & Gimona, A. (2017) Spatial hidden Markov models and species distribution(link is external). Journal of Applied Statistics.
- Allan, G., Comerford, D., & McGregor, P. (2019) The system-wide impact of healthy eating: assessing emissions and economic impacts at the regional level(link is external). Food Policy.
- Allan, G., Comerford, D., & McGregor, P. "Computable General Equilibrium models with Natural Capital(link is external)" was submitted to Fraser of Allendar working paper series.
- Blackstock, K.L, Juarez-Bourke, A, Maxwell, J.L., Tindale S., Waylen K.A (2018) Governing Scotland’s natural resources: are our policies sufficiently joined -up? SEFARI case study available here.
- Martin-Ortega, J.; Waylen, K.A. (2018) PES what a mess? An analysis of the position of environmental professionals in the conceptual debate on Payments for Ecosystem Services.(link is external) Ecological Economics, 154:218-237.
- Kirsty Blackstock, Kerry Waylen, Katrin Prager, Alba Juarez-Bourke, Jessica Maxwell and Sophie Tindale (2018) "Agency in policy alignment: Insights from a review of Scottish Policy Instruments" at St. Andrews Geography and Sustainable Development Seminar Series, 13th November, 2018.
- Kerry, A. Waylen, Kirsty L. Blackstock, Freddy J. van Hulst, Carmen Damian, Ferenc Horváth, Richard K. Johnson, Robert Kanka, Mart Külvik, Christopher J.A. Macleod, Kristian Meissner, Mihaela M. Oprina-Pavelescu, Joan Pino, Eeva Primmer, Geta Rîșnoveanu, Barbora Šatalová, Jari Silander, Jana Špulerová, Monika Suškevičs, Jan Van Uytvanck (2019) Policy-driven monitoring & evaluation: does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?(link is external) Science of the Total Environment.
- Polhill, et al. (2019) Crossing the chasm: a 'tube-map' for agent-based social simulation of policy scenarios in spatially-distributed systems. (link is external) Geoinformatica, 23, 169-99.
- Nijnik, M., Miller, D. (2018) Valuation of ecosystem services: paradox or Pandora’s box for decision-makers?(link is external) One Ecosystem 2.
- Melnykovych, M., Nijnik, M., Soloviy, I., Nijnik, A., Sarkki, S., Bihun, Y. (2018) Social-ecological innovation in remote mountain areas: adaptive responses of forest-dependent communities to the challenges of a changing world.(link is external) Science of the Total Environment 613–614: 894–906.
- Nijnik, M., Nijnik, A., Sarkki, S., Muñoz-Rojas, J., Miller, D., Kopiy, S. (2018) Is forest related decision-making in European treeline areas socially innovative? A Q-methodology enquiry into the perspectives of international experts.(link is external) Forest Policy and Economics 92, July: 210-219.
- Leinonen, I. 2019. Achieving environmentally sustainable livestock production.(link is external) Sustainability 11: 246.
- Hester, A.J., Scholtens, R. (2019) Analysing habitat patch size and connectivity at a national level for Scotland - data assessment(link is external), James Hutton Institute Website Paper, 14pp.
- Blackstock, K.L., Novo, P., Byg, A., Creaney, R., Juarez Bourke, A., Maxwell, J.L., Tindale, S.J., Waylen, K.A. (2020) Policy Instruments for Environmental Public Goods: Interdependencies and Hybridity. Land Use Policy.
- Freer-Smith, P.; Muys, B.; Bozzano, M.; Drossler, L.; Farrelly, N.; Jactel, H.; Korhonen, J.; Minotta, G.; Nijnik, M.; Orazio, C. (2019) Plantation forests in Europe: challenges and opportunities. European Forest Institute, From Science to Policy 9, 50pp.
- Hester, A.J., Aguado, S. & Britton, A.J. (2020) Analysing habitat patch size and connectivity at a national level for Scotland - data assessment part 2: HabMoS. James Hutton Institute, 29pp.
- Hewitt, R.J., Bradley, N., Baggio, C.A., Barlagne, C., Ceglarz, A., Cremades, R., McKeen, M., Otto, I.M., Slee, B. (2019) Social Innovation in Community Energy in Europe: A Review of the Evidence. Frontiers in Energy Research 7: 31
- Leinonen, I., Iannetta, P.P.M., MacLeod, M., Rees, R.M., Russell, W., Watson, C., Barnes, A.P. (2019) Regional land use efficiency and nutritional quality of protein production. Global Food Security 26, September 2020, 100386
- Metzger, M.J.; Dick, J.; Gardner, A.; Bellamy, C.; Blackstock, K.L.; Brown, C.; Chisholm, R.; Cochrane, P.; Drewitt, J.; Gimona, A.; Hester, A.J.; Mathieson, S.; Nijnik, M.; McVittie, A.; Petr, M.; Smith, R.; Smith, M. (2019) Knowledge sharing, problem solving and professional development in a Scottish ecosystem services community of practice. Regional Environmental Change, 19, 2275-2286.
- Nijnik, M.; Secco, L.; Miller, D.R.; Melnykovych, M. (2019) Can social innovation make a difference to forest-dependent communities? Forest Policy and Economics 100, 207-213.
- Novo, P., Byg, A., Herrett, S. (2020) How can we safeguard biodiversity through values and governance? SEFARI case study.
- Poggio, L. and Lassauce, A., Gimona, A. (2019). Modelling the extent of northern peat soil and its uncertainty with Sentinel: Scotland as example of highly cloudy region. Geoderma 346,63-74
- Secco L, Pisani E, Da Re R, Rogelja T, Burlando C, Pettenella D, Masiero M, Miller D, Nijnik M, (2019). Towards developing a method to evaluate social innovation in forest-dependent communities: a science-stakeholders collaboration, Forest Policy and Economics, 104, 9-22
- van Kooten, G.C.; Nijnik, M.; Bradford, K. (2019) Can carbon accounting promote economic development in forest-dependent indigenous communities? Forest Policy and Economics, 100, 68-74.
- van Rees, C.B.; Waylen, K.A.; Schmidt-Kloiber, A.; Thackeray, S.J.; Kalinkat, G.; Martens, K.; Domisch, S.; Lillebø, A.I.; Hermoso, V.; Grossart, H.; Schinegger, R.; Decleer, K.; Adriaens, T.; Denys, L.; Jarić, I.; Janse, J.H.; Monaghan, M.T.; De Wever, A.; Geijzendorffer, I.; Adamescu, M.C.; Jähnig, S.C. Safeguarding Freshwater Life Beyond 2020: Recommendations for the New Global Biodiversity Framework from the European Experience. Preprints 2020, 2020010212
- Wang C, Gimona A, Baggio Compagnucci A and Jiang Y. (2020) Use of Digital and 3D Visualisation Technology in Planning for Woodland Expansion. 22nd EGU General Assembly Conference, May 2020. Bibcode: 2020EGUGA..22.1243W
- Waylen, K.A.; Blackstock, K.L; van Hulst, F.; Damian, C.; Horváth, F.; Johnson, R.K.; Kanka, R.; Külvik, M.; Macleod, C.J.A.; Meissner, K.; Oprina-Pavelescu, M.M.; Pino, J.; Primmer, E.; Rîsnoveanu, G.; Satalová, B.; Silander, J.; Spulerová, J.; Suskevics, M.; van Uytvanck, J. (2019) Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems? Science of the Total Environment, 662, 373-384.